Friday, May 26, 2006

Chickens in ancient Rome

The Romans used chickens for oracles, both when flying ("ex avibus") and when feeding ("auspicium ex tripudiis"). The hen ("gallina") gave a favourable omen ("auspicium ratum"), when appearing from the left (Cic.,de Div. ii.26), like the crow and the owl.

For the oracle "ex tripudiis" according to Cicero (Cic. de Div. ii.34), any bird could be used, but normally only chickens ("pulli") were consulted. The chickens were cared for by the pullarius, who opened their cage and fed them pulses or a special kind of soft cake when an augury was needed. If the chickens stayed in their cage, made noises ("occinerent"), beat their wings or flew away, the omen was bad; if they ate greedily, the omen was good.

In 249 BC, the Roman general Publius Claudius Pulcher had his chickens thrown overboard when they refused to feed before the battle of Drepana, saying "If they won't eat, perhaps they will drink." He promptly lost the battle against the Carthaginians and 93 Roman ships were sunk. Back in Rome, he was tried for impiety and heavily fined.

In 161 BC a law was passed in Rome that forbade the consumption of fattened chickens. It was renewed a number of times, but does not seem to have been successful. Fattening chickens with bread soaked in milk was thought to give especially delicious results. The Roman gourmet Apicius offers 17 recipes for chicken, mainly boiled chicken with a sauce. All parts of the animal are used: the recipes include the stomach, liver, testicles and even the pygostyle (the fatty "tail" of the chicken where the tail feathers attach).

The Roman author Columella gives advice on chicken breeding in his eighth book of his treatise on agriculture. He identifies Tanagrian, Rhodic, Chalkidic and Median (commonly misidentified as Melian) breeds, which have an impressive appearance, a quarrelsome nature and were used for cockfighting by the Greeks. For farming, native (Roman) chickens are to be preferred, or a cross between native hens and Greek cocks. Dwarf chickens are nice to watch because of their size but have no other advantages.

Per Columella, the ideal flock consists of 200 birds, which can be supervised by one person if someone is watching for stray animals. White chickens should be avoided as they are not very fertile and are easily caught by eagles or goshawks. One cock should be kept for five hens. In the case of Rhodian and Median cocks that are very heavy and therefore not much inclined to sex, only three hens are kept per cock. The hens of heavy fowls are not much inclined to brood; therefore their eggs are best hatched by normal hens. A hen can hatch no more than 15-23 eggs, depending on the time of year, and supervise no more than 30 hatchlings. Eggs that are long and pointed give more male, rounded eggs mainly female hatchlings.

Per Columella, Chicken coops should face southeast and lie adjacent to the kitchen, as smoke is beneficial for the animals. Coops should consist of three rooms and possess a hearth. Dry dust or ash should be provided for dust-baths.

According to Columella, chicken should be fed on barley groats, small chick-peas, millet and wheat bran, if they are cheap. Wheat itself should be avoided as it is harmful to the birds. Boiled ryegrass (Lollium sp.) and the leaves and seeds of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can be used as well. Grape marc can be used, but only when the hens stop laying eggs, that is, about the middle of November; otherwise eggs are small and few. When feeding grape marc, it should be supplemented with some bran. Hens start to lay eggs after the winter solstice, in warm places around the first of January, in colder areas in the middle of February. Parboiled barley increases their fertility; this should be mixed with alfalfa leaves and seeds, or vetches or millet if alfalfa is not at hand. Free-ranging chickens should receive two cups of barley daily.

Columella advises farmers to slaughter hens that are older than three years, because they no longer produce sufficient eggs. Capons were produced by burning out their spurs with a hot iron. The wound was treated with potter's chalk.

For the use of poultry and eggs in the kitchens of ancient Rome see Roman eating and drinking.

Saturday, May 13, 2006

Many people stick to the white meat of the chicken, but they should really try the leg meat as well. Chicken leg meat - the legs, thighs and drumsticks - has a wonderful flavor, works great in all types of cooking, and is a great value today.

Today's great value

Leg meat is a great value today. That's because the demand for breast meat and wings has also produced plenty of dark meat - you can't produce a chicken with one but not the other! Consequently, chicken marketers are offering leg meat at very attractive prices.

Marketers are also bringing innovative, tasty and convenient new products to market that use leg meat. These include:

  • Skinless, boneless thighs that can be used in place of boneless breast in many recipes.
  • Seasoned thigh meat on skewers, ready to go on the grill.
  • Marinated or seasoned leg meat strips, ready to use in fajitas or stir-fry recipes. Try one of these new products in your next chicken dish!
Leg meat - great on the grill

Everyone loves grilled chicken, and leg meat parts are ideal for cooking over the coals. Chicken thighs and other leg-meat pieces contain a little more fat than the white meat, making them better able to withstand the intense heat of a grill. The heat melts the fat and helps the chicken stay moist and tender.

Grilling with chicken leg parts couldn't be simpler. Boneless, skinless thighs are perfect for the grill. Simply place the meat on an oiled grill and cook, turning once, for about 8 to 10 minutes per side. For bone-in parts, such as drumsticks or bone-in thighs, the key to cooking the meat through to the center without burning the outside is to place the grilling rack about 5 to 8 inches from the heat of the fire. Turning the meat will prevent scorching.

Drumsticks, thighs and legs should cook to an internal temperature of about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, or 15 to 30 minutes per side, depending on the size of the part. Check to be sure that a fork can be inserted into the meat with ease and that the juices run clear, not pink.